Grafting is a mode of plant reproduction using cloning that combines the advantageous characteristics of the scion and the rootstock. The plant to be reproduced is selected according to its varieties of fruits or flowers. It provides the scion, which could be a branch, a stem or a bud. The rootstock is the support for the graft. It is a plant that is genetically close to the scion, robust and adapted to the climate and the soil. It provides the sap needed for the growth of the scion. Unlike with the use of seeds, the technique of grafting does not permit any genetic mixing; the plant derived from the graft is identical to the scion plant. This thus permits the reproduction of seedless fruits (oranges or seedless grapes).
The most common grafting techniques are:
- Patch grafting or patch budding
- Cleft grafting
- Crown grafting